HISTORY OF MALLAS
Mallas were one of the oldest tribes in India. They as also called as Mala, Malla, Malicos (by Greeks).
They were the cause of ancient civilization in India. They are mentioned in the Mahabaratha.
They were the basis for Saivaism, Vishnavism (Brahmanism / Hinduism hijaked Saivaism and Vishnavism).
Lord Shiva, Goddess Meenakshi (Durga, Parvathi, Amman), Lord Vishnu, Goddess Lakshmi, Lord Murugan, Lord Vinayak (Ganesh), Lord Krisha are all mentioned as Mallas in ancient literature. The Mallas were also great devotees of Buddha and spread Buddhism during and after te life of Buddha. Buddha died among the Mallas and the Cremation of Buddha was done by the Mallas.
The Mallas were Land Lords and farmers during peace time and warriors during war time. In ancient India as farming was the major and noble profession
they were the first citizens hence Nobles and Kings and were the basis for civilization in India. They built numerous cities in India. Most of the Temples of Lord Shiva, Goddess Amman (Durga), Lord Vishnu (Perumal), Lord Muruga, Lord Ganesh, Lord Krishna were built by them.
When a great and good Malla King died he was cremated and in due course of time a Siva Temple was built at the place of Cremtion.
When a great and good Malla Queen died, she was cremated and in due course of time an Amman Temple was built at that site.
Lord Vishnu (Perumal) represented a living good Malla King.
The Mallas ruled India under several dynasty names. Some of them include Pandiyan, Cholan, Cheran, Pallava, Chalukya Kings.
and the Kings
The Mallas formed rules of war that was noble than what is now devised in the United Nations International rules of War.
Some of them include fight at a designated Battlefield at designated time.
Begin the war after Sunrise with the blow of horn when both armies are ready to fight and stop the war before Sunset with the blow of horn.
Fight only those designated as soldiers and that too those that have weapon and ready to fight.
Do not engage in a fight with soldiers that run from the Battlefield.
They also thought dying in a war fighting is Martyr rather than running away as a coward once initially agreed to fight.
When a subordinate King agreed to pay takes and later refused to pay takes and also refused to fight at a designated place and shuts his city gates then the Superior King send his troops to blow the city walls and plunder the city.
The Greek travelers were so amazed to see people working in farmlands unharmed and without intervention when two armies were fighting in a near by battlefield, such was the code or war conduct of the Mallas.
The Mallas had different forms of Democracy and means of choosing the leader. The village Chiefs were chosen through an election that was caste by polling votes in a leaf and placing in a Pot. The person stating in these elections should have a prescribed minimum amount of land and paid taxes and should not have had any prior criminal records. Several Village Chiefs chose the Chief of Village Chiefs known as Perumal. The Perumals post was a one time tenure of 12 years. Later with change in time the Perumals became Kings and their sons became the succeeding Kings. When a King died without heir the next King or Queen was chosen with the help of the Kings Elephant. After prayers in the Kings Temple, the Royal Kings Elephant was given a garland and taken through the streets. On whom ever the Elephant places the Garland became the next King or Queen. They also elected representatives of villages by placing the list of names all willing participants in a basket and prayed the Village God or Goddess and then picked a draw. Whose ever name came in the draw became a representative. (Now days we consider this as a matter of luck or lottery. But they believed this is the will of God and hence adopted this procedure).
The Kings or Perumal with extraordinary valour, talent and who performed well were considered as God. Note Perumal was later equated to Lord Vishnu. In Tamilnadu even today Vishnu Temples are called Perumal Temples. Note the similarity of roles. Lord Vishnu / Perumal is considered the Protector. In ancient Malla culture the Kings / Perumals were the Protectors of the nation.
A Malla King Perumal of extraordinary valour, talent and who performed well and did good deeds to the nation that died was burnt to ashes and at the place of his cremation a Shiva Lingum was erected and a Lord Shiva Temple was built at this place. There was two-fold significance to the Linga first it meant the person cremated there was a Male, second, the person has become formless and shapeless and reached infinite with God.
Perumal represented the living King and Lord Shiva represented the dead King but attaining infinity, but this was later misinterpreted as Lord Vishnu / Perumal as the Protector God and Lord Shiva as the God of death or destruction. At the place of cremation of a queen with extraordinary valour, talent and who performed well and did good deeds an Amman / Durga Temple was erected. The Mallas lived throughout India but had separate Kingdoms in different dynasty names. The Mallas in the South India ruled by the name of Pandiyas, Cholas, Cheras, Pallavas (Note Pallavas were descendants of Early Cholas.) In North India they lived as Mallas but specific dynasty names are known yet. They were the basis for ancient Indian Civilization and this is the reason throughout India Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu and Lord Durga are the primary Gods.
The Mallas were farmers, landlords, and administrators during peacetime and were warriors during wartime. There were several classifications of workers that supported the civilization and these workers married whom they wanted and performed what job they wanted. THERE WAS NO CASTE IN INDIA AT THAT TIME.
BUT AS THE MALLAS DID NOT ADOPT / SUPPORT BRAHAMANISM they were excommunicted when they lost power to rulers that supported Brahmanism and were gradually made Untouchables over a period of 200 to 300 years. The bulk of this change happened mostly after the 13th Century.
Mallas, Malas are scattered all around India and some around the World.
NOTE: The later Cholas expanded their reign through out South India, East India, North East India, and East and South of the Peninsular India.
One of the great grand sons of Raja Raja Cholan, called as Kulotungan was also called by name Karikala (In honor / rememberance of the Great Early Chola Karikala). The current Nepal Kings claim they are Mallas and the originator of their Kingdom in Nepal was by name Karakala during the 13t Century A.D. The time period fits ith the Karikala Chola of later Cholas.
CURRENT STATUS OF MALLAS
The Cholas and Chalukyas together defeated the Pallavas in about 9th Century A.D. (Though the Pallavas were Mallas and were the descendants of Cholas. Illandirayan, the grandson of Early Chola Karikala was the originator of the Pallavas).
The Pandiyas defeated the Cholas in about the 14th Century A.D. (Though they were both Mallas and were relatives).
The Pandiyas were defeated through trickery by the Nayaks of Vijayanagar. After that all the Mallas of Tamilnadu were termed as Pallas by the Nayaks. The Titles of the Mallas like Vellala, Pannadi, Mannadi are used by other newly formed castes with the introduction of Brahamanism by the Nayaks. The Mallas prefer to call by name Devendrakulam /
Devendralula Vellala to mean descandants of Lord Indra, Kudumban to mean the chief of Village.
The Cheras were defeated during the Kalabara upraisal and did not come back to power.
Many descandants of the Cholas and Pandiyas left Tamilnadu after their defeat and live in Kerala also by name Mannaadi.
The Mallas are called by name Malas nowadays. They are mostly the descendants of Cholas and Pandiyas.
The Mallas are called by name Malas, Mallas, Mahars nowadays. The GREAT Dr.B.R.Ambedkar is a Malla.
In Kashmir and Himalayas
In Pakistan and Afganistan
In Indonasia, Malyasia