In ancient times (~ 3000-1000 BC Indus valley civilization) Dravidians (Tamilians - Please read Who are Dravidians below) lived and ruled through out India (Current India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Laos, Afganistan, Parts of Iran)
Pandian, Chola and Cheran Kings came from some other place (legend and hearsay says from the drowned continent Lemuria), settled in South India and diverted rivers and built banks to rivers, brought different spices of plants like rice (paddy), Banana, Turmeric, Beatle nuts, Palm tree etc, dug wells, created agriculture lands, created towns, cities, spread the Tamil language by organizing Tamil Sangam, created the concept of family with father as the head of the family, formed democracy (elected representatives called Perumal as chiefs for a one time tenure of 12 years), devised noble rule of war (Fight at a designated battle field to decide the victor and loser, fight only after day break and before sunset, fight only the designated solders, and that too only the soldiers that have weapons and not to attack a coward soldier who ran from attack) and created civilization.
Legends passed through generations say that Pandian, Cholan and Cheran were the children of same Mother and lived together in Korkai. The eldest, Pandian stayed there but Cholan and Cheran moved north and Cheran established in Vanjee and Cholan established in Ooraiuoor.
There were several language speaking people at that time. The important one among them were Naagar (Nagas), Oliar, Aruvaalar, Yeinar, Kurumbar.
To spread the Tamil language the three Tamil Kings, especially Pandian kings took great measure. Pandian King (Ookira-peru-valu-thee – considered to be the incarnation of Lord Shiva) researched the language with the sage Agathian and started the First Tamil Sangam (A campaign ) to spread the language.
Pandian King Ookiraperuvaluthee went to Deva World, and brought sons of Devas and Devis with the seedlings of several grains and plants, dug several wells, started agriculture and made the land fertile.
Somasundara Pandian (Lord Shiva) conquered Himalayas and established his reign there.
Tadathagai Peraatee (Meenkshi Goddess Parvathi), Pandian Princess conquered up to Himalayas and married Lord Shiva.
Lord Murugan (Pandian Prince, Son of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvathi) commandeered the army of Devas and conquered several Kingdoms.
Chola King Gaandamun dug the Koodaku mountain and brought the Kaveri river to Chola country.
Chola King Karikaalan (ancient Cholas) build the Kall-aanai (Dam) to divert the Kaveri river to the lands were water was necessary. Another Chola King Karikaalan (later Cholas) built banks to the river Kaveri.
Karigaalan’s grand son Eelandirayan conquered the Tondaimandalam lands from the native Oliar, Aruvaalar, Yeinar, Kurumbar and immigrated Tamilians to that land and started agriculture in that area. His dynasty later became the Pallavas.
Lord Buddha liked the Malla Kingdoms, lived and spent his last years in the Malla Kingdom and died there. Last rites to Buddha were done by the Mallas. (The Malla country was a non-Monarchy at that period)
With Pandian and Tamil Kings, colonies of Roman subjects engaged in trade and settled in South India. Roman soldiers (European soldiers) acted as body guards to Tamil Kings and Roman soldiers worked in the Pandian army and army of other Tamil Kings.
Pandian Nedunj-Cheliyan was called as Aryappadai-Kaderetha- Nedunj-Cheliyan, meaning Destroyer of Aryan army - Nedunj-Cheliyan Pandian. (Please review who are the Aryans below as there is a false notion that Brahmins are Aryans)
During the end of 3rd Century A.D. the Tamil Kings went into oblivion (became smaller kings) due to Kalabiras. The 3rd Tamil Sangam stopped with that. (Till now there is no history pointing to who the Kalabiras are. But Thiru.R.Devasirvatham thinks it was an internal revolt that happened through out India that lead to Chaos through out India. It should be noted that this was the period when the Buddist Mauryan Emperor Brihadratha was murdered by one of his commanders and a Brahminism / Hinduism based society started emerging in North India).
The Pallavas moved to the north (current Andra State) during this period, adopted a different language, but came back to Tondaimandalam in the 4th Century AD and expanded and ruled till 9th Century AD.
During 6th Century AD Pandian King Kadungoan defeated the Kalabiras and once again established the Pandian Kingdom.
Pandian Kings were Jains at this time. Then Pandian King Nedumaaran (also called as KoonPandian) who married Chola Princess Mangayar-karaasi became Saivam (Devotee of Lord Shiva) from Jainism.
Pandian Kings supported the Cholas during this time and waged several wars against the Pallavas and gradually expanded their empire into the Pallava Empire.
During the 9th Century AD, Chola King Vijayalayan defeated Muthirayar (A part of the Pandian Clan) in Thanjavur and established the Chola Kingdom.
The Chola empire expanded under Raja Raja Cholan (Original name Arul-molli-varman) and his son, Rajendra Cholan. Their empire was unchallenged through out India. They had their administrative control upto Mid India (Maharastra, Madyapradesh, Orissa, Bengal ) in the North, the entire South India, Srilanka, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia in the South.
The Cholas built 1000s of Temples through out their Empire. The Bragadeeswarar Big Temple in Thanjavur, Chidambaram Natarajar Temple, Tiruvarur Temple were built by Cholas. (A side note: At present it is not known who built the Temples in Elephanta Caves. The Elephanta Caves have big sculpture of Lord Murugan. Lord Murugan is considered as a Tamil God. So the Elephanta Caves may be built by a Malla / Tamil King)
During 13th Century AD, Chola Empire began to decline. Because of the humiliation done to Pandian King by Cholan Kulothungan earlier, Pandian King SundaraPandian destroyed most part of Cholan Empire, burnt Tanjavur leaving only the Temples and the Convention Center (16 leg Mandapam) Built by Cholan Karikaalan.
The Pandian Empire was rich with GOLD, Pearl and Spices. The City Gates of Madurai (Capital of Pandian King at that time) was ornamented with Gold and Pearls.
During 14th Century Pandian empire began to decline because of frequent attacks my Muslim Kings. Muslim Kings raided cities, killed hundreds of thousands of citizens and took huge amount (tonnes and tonnes) of gold and Jewellery to Delhi. (It is to be noted there were about 20,000 Muslim soldiers in the Pandian army. But these soldiers betrayed the Pandian Kings and joined the Muslim army when Muslim army attacked Pandian Kingdom. A part of the modern Kallan community was Muslims at that time. As evidence the Kallan community follow certain Muslim customs like Sunnath -removing the foreskin of Pennies, having horse tail’s hair in the Mangalsudram -Taali or Wedding chain of the bride - wife)
During the end of 14th Century Vijayanagar army chiefs came to Madurai and defeated the Muslim rulers with the help of Pandian Chiefs and the Vijayanagar army chief established his rule in Madurai. Gradually Vijayanagar army and citizens moved to Chola and Pandian Kingdom and removed the privileges of the Tamil elite – Removal of land ownership from Tamils (Mallar – Devendrakulathar, Original Vellala) and forcebly transfered ownership of Land and Title to Telugu Nayaks, Telugu Brahmins and others who supported the Nayak rule. New rules were passed to stop contact with Pandian and their relatives by general citizens. Rule were passed to prevent contact and intermarriage between the 18 worker communities that supported the Tamil society and Tamil Kings, Nayaks encouraged Pallu literature and changed Name of the successors of Tamil Kings and their relatives from Malla to Pallan. Due to censure, low status and avoidance of contact with supporters of Tamil Kings many of the Mallars migrated to Kerala (Mannradiar), Ceylon and Malayasia. The Nayaks allowed other Tribes to Plunder the Mallas, motivated other communities to challange the Mallas and to claim their title, elevated the status and privilege of supporters of Telugu rule, Telugu Brahmins and encouraged Sanskrit.
After the Mallas-humiliated as Pallas, went through several distress, oppression and quarantine, many of them converted to Christianity, Islam but many still remain as Hindus. It should be noted and emphasized again that the Mallas were the originators, guardians, Gods, Goddess, devotees and builders of the Saivite and Vishnavite religion which is the basis of current but transformed Hinduism. But the descendants of Mallas were made low in the society that enjoys and cherishes the culture and civilization built by the Mallas.
Facts on Indian Religion.
1. Lord Siva represents eternity and infinity with any form and shape and without form and shape, visible and invisible. When a great Malla King died, his body was burnt to ashes and a Lingum was erected. Then a Siva Temple was built on the site. So a Malla King who left the World and joined eternity was represented by the Lingam (formless, infinite and eternal) who reached Lord Siva.
(The temple built on the cremation of Raja Raja Chola was found recently in Darasaram, near Kumbakonam in Tanjavur district of Tamilnadu). The Lingams in Indus valley represent the same as explained above.
2. Lord Vishnu is the Protector. In olden days the King was the Protector. King was considered a God. The King or chief of several chiefs of villages was called as Perumal (an elected tenure for 12 years) (Ref: Moovendar yaar (Revised Edition) – Page 75). It is to be noted Lord Vishnu was also called as Perumal in Tamilnadu. So the living King, the protector of the nation and his subjects represented Lord Vishnu.
1. Who are the Dravidians – Dravidians means Tamilians
From ‘THE UNTOUCHABLES WHO WERE THEY AND WHY THEY BECAME UNTOUCHABLES?’, CHAPTER VII, RACIAL DIFFERENCE AS THE ORIGIN OF UNTOUCHABILITY’ By Dr.B.R.Ambedkar
“The second thing to be borne in mind is that the word 'Dravida' is not an original word. It is the Sanskritized form of the word Tamil'.
The original word Tamil' when imported into Sanskrit became Damita and later on Damilla became Dravida. The word Dravida is the name of the language of the people and does not denote the race of the people. The third thing to remember is that Tamil or Dravida was not merely the language of South India but before the Aryans came it was the language of the whole of India and was spoken from Kashmere to Cape Camorin.”
2. What is the meaning of Aryan in ancient Rig Veda?
The word Aryan had different meaning at different times. The word Aryan was used with the context and meaning of ‘Enemy’ in earliest Rig Vedas. In later Rig Veda poems the word Aryan was used in the context to mean ‘Respectable Noble’ and then later to mean ‘Citizen’ [From WHO WERE THE SHUDRAS? By Dr.B.R.Ambedkar, APPENDIX III Different meanings of the word "Arya" found in the Rig Veda.]
3. What is the meaning of Aryan in ancient Tamil?
The word Aryan had different meaning at different times in Tamil also. According to the oldest Tamil Dictionary (Thevaagaram or Nigandu written may be between 1- 3 Century BC) the word ‘Aryan’ – was defined as Millacher meaning ‘Uncivilized’. Later to mean a person who did not learn Tamil properly and later on it meant outsider. (Ref: Moovendar yaar (Revised Edition) – Page 36)
4. What is Rig Veda?
Originally. it was a collection of songs written by Kings, Sages about the life and activities of Indra and his country, songs written by Sages in praise of Indra and requesting for wealth, songs pleading Indra to protect them from enemies (Asuras and Aryans!). Later with the birth of Brahminism, songs were added to explain creation, three divisions of labour - Varnas (Brahmin, Khsatria and Vayshia). A much later collection called the 'Purusha Sukta' was added as part of Rig Veda. The ‘Purusha Sukta‘ included a fourth division called Sudra and changed the pre-existing 3 labour divisions into four social classes – Jaadee (Brahmin, Khsatria, Vayshia and Sudra)
5. Who is Indra?
Indra was the name given to the King of the Devas (Title for the King of Devas). Like the term ‘King’ itself Indra meant the King of Devas. Indra was not a single person but a title. The word Indra was coined from ‘Devar-Vendan’ (Vendan meaning King in Tamil), meaning King of Devas, then was called as Deva-Vendan. Then the two words collapsed to one word as ‘Devendran’ and the last part was used as Indran (Tamil) and Indra (Sanskritized form).
In Kerla Cheran Kings were called as Indra. (Ref: Moovendar yaar (Revised Edition) – Page 75). Pandian Kings were also called as Indra. (Ref: Moovendar yaar (Revised Edition) – Page 85, 93).
6. Now a day there is a notion that Brahmin means Aryan. Is it true that all Brahmins are Aryans?
Who are the Brahmins and who are the Aryans
Inference from Facts
Inference that can be made based on Moovendar Yaar? (Thiru.R.Deva Asirvatham), Pallar Alla Mallar aam Mannar, Tamil Illakiathil Pallar (Mallar) Devendrakula Vellalar (Dr.Guruswamy Siddan), Who are the Sudras? (Dr.B.R.Ambedkar)
It should be noted that in the Vedas, Lord Indra and the Devas are called for help through Mantras but they do not claim any relationship with the Devas. But the Tamil kings celebrated Indra vella (Festival) every year and had Indra as their God. The Devendrakulam community also claim they are the descendants of Lord Indra and the Devas and have symbolically used the objects owned by Lord Indra like White Elephant, Round White Umbrella, 16 pillar building and tent (Pandal), 18 types of Musical sounds for their festival etc. So one should think about history and relation between Indra, Vedas, Tamil Kings, Mallar and Devendrakulam community and who the Devas, Aryans really were.
The origin of Brahmanism, Caste and Riddles in Hinduism